It is undeniable that the development of cities today is quite rapid in various regions in the country. This is characterized by the establishment of magnificent skyscraper buildings that provide a burden on the carrying capacity of urban ecosystems, both in land use, energy use, water and material resources and the burden of waste and waste in urban ecosystems.
The development of urban ecosystems (urban ecocystem development) is inseparable from the increase in population and all of their needs that are influenced by modern lifestyle patterns. Changes in lifestyle patterns with characteristics of increasing fulfillment of secondary and tertiary needs (lux), have encouraged the development of various central facilities for economic activities to meet human needs, such as luxury apartment buildings, malls / plazas, and skyscraper hotels.
Construction of large buildings in urban ecosystems, is certain to provide great pressure on the carrying capacity of urban ecosystems (urban carrying capacity), because these buildings require large sources of electrical energy, water resources and material needs, produce large amounts of waste and maintenance costs. .
Therefore, building buildings or buildings in urban areas is time to apply the concept of green buildings (Green Buiding), with the aim that the buildings meet good land use policies, energy efficiency and water resources, and implement building management that minimizes waste or waste.
According to the Indonesian Engineers Association (PII, 2016), green building is an effort to produce buildings by using environmentally friendly processes and efficient use of resources starting from planning, construction, operational use and maintenance of buildings. Thus, the urgency of Green Building is not to burden businessmen or developers, but instead provide long-term benefits (benefit in the longterm) for both the urban environment and the community or building users.
To reach buildings that meet the green building criteria, at least according to PII there are several criteria that must be met, namely: 1) Appropriate Site Development, 2) Energy efficiency and conservation (Energy Efficiency and Conservation), 3) Water conservation ( Water Conservation), 4) Source and material cycle (Material Resource and Cycle), 4) Air quality and room comfort (Indoor Air Health and Comfort), and 5) Building and Environment Management.
Therefore, the government needs to issue a policy that can encourage national certification institutions or international institutions to assess whether existing buildings in major cities in Indonesia have met the criteria of green building?
In planning the construction of large buildings in urban areas, the legal aspects (formal legal) relating to building construction permits are still more priority than the suitability aspects of land use. Therefore, it is not surprising that in many big cities in the country there are many residential evictions and the location of mall buildings.
The coastal area is made into a five-star hotel location by displacing any building that is there. In this case the social aspects and ecological aspects are often overlooked due to the dominance of economic aspects, although in terms of land use criteria it is not wise.
When the building is finished, the grandeur of the building will enhance the beauty of the city. Behind that, there will be a large use of energy sources to supply electricity, so that an increase in electricity supply is needed. If there is no effort to increase electricity supply capacity, the existing capacity has become insufficient for the needs of the community. What happens, electricity will go out in turns because the electricity needs are greater than the available capacity of the PLN.
Buildings in urban areas that are not environmentally friendly predominantly rely on the supply of electrical energy sources using fuel oil. In Indonesia, around 50% of the electricity source is generated by burning fuel and only 5% by renewable energy.
Fuel combustion is sure to produce CO2 and CO emissions that can increase levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. In the 1990s the CO2 level in the atmosphere was almost constant at around 230 ppm. After the 2000s the CO2 levels in the atmosphere increased to double or almost 400 ppm. It is estimated that in 2050 the level of CO2 in the atmosphere will increase 3-fold if fuel consumption continues as it is today.
The impact is very serious where there will be an increase in global temperature around 2 oC which causes the melting of the polar ice sheets and rising sea levels which are very dangerous for island nations such as Indonesia.
By realizing this, building buildings in urban areas must emphasize the efficiency of energy use, and are even expected to use renewable energy from wind and solar power. In this case, solar panels can be installed on the roof of the uppermost building to capture solar energy into electrical energy for energy conservation and energy use efficiency.
Likewise, in the use of water resources, large skyscraper buildings such as star hotels are certainly in need of a large supply of clean water. By only relying on ground water and surface water, it will cause a disruption in the balance of water supply in the urban ecosystem.
Therefore, urban buildings need to utilize rain fall, and recycle waste water into clean water, resulting in water conservation and water use efficiency.
The criteria for green buildings also prioritize the health of air in the building, which means that the building must provide clean and fresh air, full of oxygen and minimal contamination of carbon dioxide gas.
The air freshness in the building must be related to the temperature of the room which must be comfortable for the occupants or the wearer. In terms of the chemical aspects that the lower the temperature the oxygen content will increase in the air and in the water.
To make healthy air in the building special attention is needed from the beginning of building planning, so that the building can be entered into the air and sunlight naturally.
Therefore, the position of the building and its design will determine this. Buildings facing the East will clearly differ in condition compared to buildings facing North. In buildings facing the East, sunlight, especially in the morning, can directly enter the courtyard and buildings. Unlike the building facing the West, the light in the afternoon with hot and hot conditions will affect the building and increase energy requirements for air conditioning.
The rapid development of large buildings in cities including residential buildings for settlements, is certain to increase waste or garbage. Therefore a building environmental management system is needed that can reduce waste or waste so that it creates environmentally friendly buildings.
It is hoped that the 3R system can be applied in the management of the building environment, namely Reuse (reuse of materials), Reduce (reduce waste volume / waste), and Recycle (recycle waste material into useful materials), so that the building meets the coveted green building criteria all urban communities.